Today at Cisco Live 2014, Cisco announced momentum for its Intercloud initiative, and VCE is excited to support this key milestone. By providing an onramp to Cisco’s Intercloud workload migration capabilities, VCE Vblock Systems will enable customers to rapidly, seamlessly and securely manage their private, hybrid and public cloud environments. This integration will enable the management of cloud-enabled workload across heterogeneous environments to be centralized with consistent network and security policies and optimized to fit the needs of the business. Check out this video with VCE CTO Trey Layton and Cisco’s Jim McHugh discussing the value of VCE Vblock Systems and Cisco Intercloud.
To address these new optimized acceleration devices we need to bring them into the memory/cache domain of the CPU If you’re in enterprise tech, then you know that the pace of digital transformation is driving technologies, architectures, and solutions to new heights. There is enough new “stuff” going on to make your head spin. All these changes are driving the industry toward revolutionary architectures as the evolutionary past is simply not keeping up. In this blog, I hope to explain the challenges that are driving the industry toward a Memory Centric Architecture (MCA). Market DynamicsThe industry’s current evolutionary journey is not providing the necessary technology to tackle big challenges ahead – we are swimming in data, billions of IoT devices are coming on line, with machine learning and cognitive computing finding their ways into business results.At the same time businesses are learning that data has an intrinsic time-based value – meaning that the value of the insights gained from the data quickly declines. Take your time on a web retailer: taking too long to piece together who you are, what you like, where you live, who your friends are, what you bought last time, and what your friends bought can result in a missed opportunity for a directed product marketing advertisement leading to a purchase versus an empty shopping cart and ultimately you moving on to a new website.At the technology level, the systems we are building through continued evolution are not advancing fast enough to keep up with these new workloads and use cases. The reality is that the machines we have today were architected five years ago, and ML/DL/AI uses in business are just coming to light, so the industry missed a need. Most of the problems above need a balance between data access and computational horsepower. But the data access is unstructured and data is movement intensive versus computational intensive – simple operators versus complex operators – one taxes memory and the other the CPU.Below is a historical view of standard 2-socket servers the industry has been building since 2003 (per core view):While there won’t be a test at the end, the key points you should take away are:Core counts continue to rise (that’s good – Moore’s Law is ok)Memory Capacity per Core is flat (Moore’s Law for DRAM is kind of keeping up)IO bandwidth per core has been on a downward trend over the last five years (and PCIe Gen4 is a ways out)Memory bandwidth per core has been shrinking for the last seven years (nothing new over the horizon at present – just more channels and pins)Memory latency per core has been rising over the last eight years (not good considering time value of data)The other challenge facing the industry is performance gains delivered by Moore’s Law. Remember, Moore’s Law is about transistor per unit area doubling rate, not performance. It just so happens in years past the two were on the same path. With the advent of multicore the rate of performance gains has dropped from 52%/year to 22%/year according to “Computer Architecture, A Quantitative Approach by Hennessy and Patterson” –the de facto standard for Computer Engineering textbooks. But still, 22% is quite good – we keep getting more cores and the cores themselves keep getting slightly better. However, the systems they are attached to (memory & IO) are not keeping up.Hence you see the industry trying to adopt all kinds of acceleration technology optimized for these new workloads, and to compensate for reduced performance CAGR. System designers are now challenged on how to add GPUs, FPGA, Smart NIC, Smart Memory, machine learning ASICs and so forth into systems that were not optimized for them.So we have a system out of balance on the memory front, and the computational performance CAGR rate has fallen off at the same time all these new use cases for big data, machine learning, cognitive computing, IoT, and advanced analytics are on the rise. Add composability, rack scale architectures, and storage class memories and we have a system that can’t keep up through evolutionary change. Revolutionary steps need to be taken.To add fuel to the fire we have the notion of composable infrastructure and the value it can bring to IT via more dynamic and agile infrastructure to line up with these changing workloads. For many vendors, marketing hype is way ahead of the reality of the hardware architecture required to pull off real composability. I have written a couple of blogs that argue we have some real challenges ahead to create new hardware and software to pull off full composability:A Practical View of Composable InfrastructureReality Check: Is Composable Infrastructure Ready for Prime Time?Gen-Z – An Open Fabric Technology Standard on the Journey to ComposabilityIt’s pretty clear we have 2 major problems to solve in today’s architecture: Memory Tier To address memory performance challenges we need to create tiers of different classes of memoryMemory semantics need to be extended to rack level to make systems truly composable Performance The storage industry has done a wonderful job of providing storage tiers. One could argue maybe too good of job. Below is a view of Past, Present, and possible Future storage tiers. Good news is the future outlook is on track to simplify this a bit.On the memory front, the picture is much bleaker…it’s DRAM or NOT DRAM. It’s easy this way, but doesn’t scale well. The problem as outlined above shows that the DRAM-only approach can’t keep up with emerging use cases. And if you think about it deeper, we can control thread priorities at an application/operating system level but not down to the DRAM access level. That means when your highest priority thread runs on Core1 and some background thread runs on Core18 they actually get the same priority access to the most congested part of the system – DRAM.What we need in the future looks like the pyramid below. Start with highest performance On Package Memory (small, high bandwidth, low latency, expensive) and build up to greater capacity, slower, and lower cost memories. But it has to be done in the native language of the CPU – namely load/stores. CPUs only know how to do load/stores, they don’t know anything about TCP/IP, SCSI, iSCSI and so forth.Industry Teams UpThat is the backdrop that has led 50+ tech titans to recognize the architecture issues we face today and join forces on Gen-Z, CCIX, and OpenCAPI. It’s pretty interesting to see Dell EMC, IBM, HPE, Huawei, Lenovo and others all in the mix together, not to mention CPU/GPU vendors AMD, IBM, ARM, Qualcomm, Cavium, Nvidia, and so on.Another interesting observation about Gen-Z, CCIX, and OpenCAPI is that they are all truly open standards – anyone can join, contribute, influence, and adopt. There is a lot of IP these companies have thrown into the mix to advance the industry rather than keeping them locked away in proprietary systems.So, how do they all relate?CCIX and OpenCAPI will help the performance of these new specialized accelerators to bring them closer to the CPU/Memory domain. They will allow acceleration devices (GPUs/SmartNICs/FPGA) to access and process data irrespective of where it resides, without the need for complex programming environments. This ability to access data coherently dramatically improves performance and usability. They both also push the bounds of IO technology from today’s PCIe Gen3 8Gbpps to 25Gbpps and prepare the industry for higher speeds to come. They will also enable new innovations by enabling more flexibility for attachment of Storage Class memories and bridging to new busses like Gen-Z due to being memory semantic based.Gen-Z is an open systems interconnect designed to provide memory semantic access to data and devices via direct-attached, switched, or fabric topologies. Not only is Dell a member but also president of the Gen-Z consortium. Gen-Z provides memory media independence for emerging storage class memories and opens the door compute in-memory concepts. Gen-Z also pushes the bounds of IO technology to 25Gbpps and scales beyond the node to enable true rack scale composability.Putting it all togetherThe future is bright. The industry is on a journey of open – Open Compute, OpenStack, Open vSwitch, Open Networking. Open source will be adopted more than ever for machine learning, deep learning, cognitive computing, IoT, and so forth. CCIX and OpenCAPI aim to create an open IO ecosystem for advanced acceleration devices. By combining CCIX/OpenCAPI with Gen-Z we’ll be able to create memory tiers and finally tackle composability at rack scale. The industry is working together to accelerate innovation for solving real world problems today, and in an open way that paves the way for the problems we cannot see yet. In my almost 30 years in the industry, this collaboration between peers is the greatest I have ever seen. It’s quite encouraging and exciting to see revolutionary architectures emerge to solve real world problems.In my next couple of blogs I’ll continue to detail how this will play out and how Dell EMC will lead this transition.
TUNIS, Tunisia (AP) — The office of Tunisian President Kais Saied said Thursday that he had been the victim of an “attempted poisoning” via a letter addressed to him and opened by an aide who fell ill. The announcement confirmed reports circulating for more than a day that someone had tried to poison the president. The statement said an envelope received Monday from an “unknown sender” addressed to Saied went to the desk of his top aide, Nadia Akacha. There was no written document inside, but “her health quickly deteriorated,” the statement said. The aide was hospitalized, the envelope analyzed and an investigation was opened.
TAIPEI, Taiwan (AP) — A second Chinese lawyer who represented a Hong Kong pro-democracy activist has been stripped of his license as Beijing attempts to crush opposition to its tighter control over the territory. Ren Quanniu, who represented one of 12 Hong Kong activists who tried to flee to Taiwan, said he had his license revoked by provincial judicial authorities. Ten of the 12 activists caught at sea in August were sentenced in December to prison terms ranging from seven months to three years for crossing the border illegally and organizing the crossings. The two other activists are minors. Two weeks ago, judicial officials revoked the license of another lawyer involved in the case.
Student body president Brett Rocheleau reviewed meetings this week between student government, community leaders and administrators during Wednesday’s gathering of the Student Senate. He also looked ahead to his administration’s goals for its upcoming meeting with the Board of Trustees. Last Thursday, Rocheleau met with Director of Academic Affairs Max Brown to talk about issues within academics. “We met with the provost and talked over issues and looked ahead at what’s to come in the future,” Rocheleau said. Friday morning, Rocheleau and chief of staff Katie Baker attended the South Bend Community Summit. “The main topic this time was the perceptions held by Notre Dame students about South Bend residents and vice versa,” Baker said. “The idea is for students to get more involved in the community because a lot of the time the residents just see Friday night shenanigans going on. We are trying to show them a more positive image.” Rocheleau said the summit was successful. “Basically the summit was for community leaders, police force, and students,” Rocheleau said “We met and talked through different events and collaboration ideas. I thought it went very wel .” Also on Friday, Rocheleau met with the Office of Student affairs about the current proposals for a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA). “It went really well,” Rocheleau said. “They’re definitely going through a lengthy process. They’ve done a lot of research for benchmark activities. They are planning to make an announcement at the end of the semester so that’s something to look forward to.” After completing this overview of their weekend meetings, Senate looked ahead to a student government presentation before the Board of Trustees. Student body vice president Katie Rose went through an outline ofnwhat this will entail. “We will start by showing what the student body looks like statistics-wise and infrastructure,” Rose said. “So we have 29 dorms – two new buildings opened to relieve overcrowding, but we are back to being overcrowded.” Rose said the presentation will include an analysis of the residence hall system versus off-campus living. “We’ll talk about why people love living on campus and why our residence life system is so remarkable and unique,” she said. “We also have to address why students are moving off campus, which we discussed last week. We will conclude with recommendations for the future, some being more student facilities or possibly new dorm buildings.” Rocheleau said overcrowding is a result of admitting more students. “We have about 8,400 students when our goal is usually 8,000,” Rocheleau said. “We’ve been admitting more and more per class, so more beds are being taken up in dorms. Even if we build new dorms, the same thing will happen again. We just opened two new dorms and overcrowding still happened.. McGlinn Hall senator Ali Wellman asked if reducing admissions would fix the problem. “Notre Dame admits a certain amount of students anticipating that some students will decline their offer,” Baker said. “More and more people have been accepting the offer lately which is why the class sizes have been over the normal amount.” Carroll Hall senator Matthew O’Brien brought up a good suggestion that would open up more beds. “Would they change the rule that athletes have to live on campus? I know a lot of athletes who have rooms in dorms but don’t actually live there,” O’Brien said. “That’s a good 100 beds that aren’t being used.” After concluding their discussion of overcrowding in residence halls, the senators addressed a resolutionoabout a new campus ministry council, introduced by campus ministry representative and senior Ellen Carroll “There is a new campus ministry leader this year, so we’re changing the model to make it really driven by the students,” Carroll said. “We want student-generated ideas to share with the administration so they can work with each other.” To bring those ideas before the administration, Carroll said a new body called the Campus Ministry Advisory Council will include 12 to 15 students. “They will meet with campus ministry administrators and talk about topics brought up from both sides,” she said. Carroll said she hopes for a wide range of students to participate in this council, not just “campus ministry regulars.. “We want to be able to better meet the needs of the entire student body,” Carroll said. “The resolution says we have this new position to facilitate communication between student government and campus ministry. The campus ministry representative will be someone from the advisory council, once it is created.” Senate voted unanimously in favor of this resolution.
Notre Dame’s Applied Investment Management course (AIM) is true to its name: It allows students to directly apply their knowledge of equity evaluation and research through the management of a live portfolio of University funds. The handpicked students in the class, comprised of undergraduate seniors in the fall and MBA students in the spring, manage approximately $6 million of the University’s endowment fund through the buying and selling of stocks. Executive-in-Residence Jerry Langley, one of the faculty members that oversee AIM, said Notre Dame created the course in 1995 with the intent of teaching students how to evaluate U.S. stocks and manage a live portfolio. “[The University] felt the students should have a hands-on experience learning equity evaluation, and it means a lot more when it’s real money, not play money,” he said. “We’ve put additional money into the fund since, and the fund has done quite well.” Before each semester, the approximately 25 students each choose a stock from the portfolio out of a hat. The students then present six reports on the stock over the first half of the semester, including an overview of what the company does, an analysis of the industry and an earnings forecast. “They wind up doing an intrinsic evaluation, saying this is what we believe the stock is worth intrinsically, compared with the stock exchange,” Langley said. “And then they say buy or sell.” After that process ends right before fall or spring break, students choose their own stocks to research for the second half of the course, and they repeat the process. At the end of the semester, the students make a decision about the stocks in the portfolio. “This semester they were left with 54 stocks to vote on,” Langley said. “They sold a few of the ones we held and bought some new ones, and they left 25 stocks in the portfolio for the spring.” Senior Alex Vander Linde, a student in this semester’s AIM class, said he particularly enjoyed seeing that $250,000 of the endowment fund was spent to buy a stock that he personally had recommended. “It is really refreshing being in a class with direct practical application, instead of learning about theoretical concepts,” he said. “And knowing that you and your peers are in charge of a large amount of money serves as a great motivation to do your homework.” While the course’s six credit hours commanded the most effort he has put toward a class, Vander Linde said the benefits he has reaped from AIM far outweigh the workload. “After graduation I plan to work in investment banking where financial analysis is performed on a daily basis,” he said. “The skills I learned in this class will prove helpful, but even more importantly, learning how other people look at companies and think about stocks has given me a perspective I never imagined when enrolling in this class.” Langley said the brightness of the students stands out as the main reason he enjoys teaching AIM. In order to register for the course, students must submit a resume, a grade transcript and a statement on why they would like to be in the class. “Because it’s handpicked, we get typically the top students applying for the class,” Langley said. “The class is very well known on Wall Street and in the financial services industry. The students who get in are highly desirable so I get to work with the best and the brightest.” Senior AIM student Sam Beres agreed the hardworking nature of the students in the class provided a unique learning opportunity. “The students in AIM really made it what it was,” he said. “A lot of what I learned actually came from them.” Beres said he chose to apply for AIM because of its prestigious reputation as a demanding yet extremely rewarding finance class. “I was told it was the best hands-on investing experience you could receive here at Notre Dame as a finance student,” he said. “Also, having the opportunity to manage a small portion of the University’s own money and network with top finance professionals across the nation was really too good to pass up.” AIM students are given several opportunities to network with investment professionals, Langley said. Alumni who work in the field often spoke to this semester’s class on the Fridays before football games. Additionally, the AIM class traveled to Chicago and New York to meet with investment professionals and gain exposure to different forms of investment. “Talking to successful professionals at great firms helped us gain insight on how others go through the security research and analysis process and how they make investment decisions,” Beres said. “The networking opportunities we had during them were probably the most important takeaway.” The trips to Chicago and New York not only offered great contact for the future, Vander Linde said, but they also provided the students with incentives to work hard in their professions. “We were lucky enough to speak with two billionaires on these visits, which was a pretty motivating experience,” he said.
Thursday, the Saint Mary’s Center for Spirituality presented the 29th Madeleva Lecture. Christine Firer Hinze spoke at the lecture, titled “Glass Ceilings and Dirt Floors: Women, Work, Catholic Social Teaching and the Global Economy.”Elizabeth Groppe, director of the Center for Spirituality, said that Hinze is a theology professor and director of the Francis and Ann Curran Center for American Catholic Studies at Fordham University. She is the author of two books and numerous scholarly essays in books and journals.Saint Mary’s College President Carol Ann Mooney said the lecture is a highlight of the academic year. “Our mission statement talks about instilling in our students a life of intellectual vigor,” Mooney said. “This lecture is a wonderful example of the intellectual life which exists here on campus.”Hinze said she plans to focus on the possibility for a renewed approach to the economies within we work and live today. “I will look at economy from the other end of the usual telescope: regarding market economy from the perspective of the non-market work and activities performed very locally, in households, especially the households of non-elites and the working poor,” Hinze said. “And while taking this standpoint may seem humble, more ‘dirt floorish’ than ‘glass celingish’, we will find that it connects us directly to the most significant, practical ‘ground-floor’ economic and ecological issues facing us today.” Hinze began by talking about household economy. She said household economy’s job is to assure its members’ provisioning through the work of producing, acquiring, distributing and stewarding its resources. “What do people seek to gain by participating in these local and household economies?” Hinze said. “… We might say we seek livelihood. … Catholic social thinker John A. Ryan summarized the elements of economic livelihood nicely as sufficiency, security and status.” “These words can help us imagine what God’s economy provides and enables us, in turn, to provide for ourselves and others,” Hinze said. “God’s great household envelops, grounds and surpasses all the other households and economies in which we dwell.”Secondly, Hinze spoke about modern market economies and the shifts in livelihood that have impacted the households and people economies are meant to provide for.“First, with the rise of modern market economies, productive work became separated from its traditional location within or near familial households … Second, to manage this new dependency on an impersonal, wage economy, there arose a new, gendered division of labor,” Hinze said. “In a third major shift, economic sufficiency becomes dislodged from fixed or stable measurement … [having] ‘enough’ becomes an ever-receding goal that is redefined as more, better, newer than now and threatens to lose all meaning.”Hinze also said feminism has recently brought married women and mothers of young children into the waged workplace. To conclude the lecture, Hinze spoke about how we need to move toward modern oikos economics, coming from the Greek word Oikonomia, management of households. She said prior to the modern era, economy and household were similes. “Oikos economics will thus cultivate open and fair markets whose boundaries, rules of engagement [and] activities are carefully regulated in light of the dignity and wellbeing of the real people and the interrelated, human and natural economies they serve, affect and depend upon,” Hinze said. Tags: economy, justice, lecture, Madeleva
In October, the University named the Morris Inn the official hotel of Notre Dame Athletics, a designation the hotel’s managing director Joe Kurth said he believes will reintroduce Notre Dame fans to what he calls “the living room of the University.”Named a AAA Four Diamond Hotel in 2013, the recently-renovated Morris Inn is different than the Inn in the black and white photos now displayed on the hotel’s walls, Kurth said.“The old Morris Inn was a bit more dorm-style — built in the 1950’s, a bit more classic. … Many generations of alumni know the Morris Inn as the old Morris Inn,” Kurth said. “As we think of the marketing arm that Athletics already has, the ability to reach out to thousands of people, it allows us to tell the story of the new Morris Inn and the renovation in a way that gives people a reason to come back. And once you see [the hotel], then you understand.”As the official hotel of Notre Dame Athletics, the Morris Inn will sponsor several athletic events and offer promotions for Notre Dame fans, according to an October press release. The partnership with the Morris Inn will benefit the athletic department by providing “the best experience possible” to Notre Dame fans, Deputy Athletics Director Jim Fraleigh said.“In addition to the fact that the Morris Inn is within close proximity of athletic venues, it also offers athletic department guests a unique opportunity to embrace the full Notre Dame experience at a full-service, first-class hotel,” Fraleigh said.Kurth said the Inn looks to imitate the “Notre Dame experience” in its own operations.“Who you are is often not what you say about yourself but what people say about you,” Kurth said. “And people say that Notre Dame is a place to visit, it’s a bucket list place for so many, and part of that is athletics, part of that is research, part of it is going back to the dorm you used to live in.“Our mission at the Morris Inn is trying to be tied in as tightly as we can in multiple areas of campus, so that when you come here, you’re comfortable. [Whether] it’s for athletics, for research, or you’re a junior in high school visiting as a prospective student … that partnership with athletics allows us to be able to say [the Morris Inn is] the best place to stay for the Notre Dame experience.”Fraleigh said Notre Dame fans will benefit from the partnership as well, because of the hotel’s central location and focus on customer service.“The Morris Inn serves as an extension of our department,” Fraleigh said. “We know the staff has great pride in what they do and we know our guests will benefit from a staff willing to go above and beyond to provide excellent service.”Kurth said the Morris Inn’s commitment to Notre Dame and its fans is a constant.“That tagline that the Morris Inn has had for years, as the living room of the University, is not just a tagline,” Kurth said. “Because … you walk out the front door, and you’re in the corridor to campus.”Tags: Jim Fraleigh, Joe Kurth, living room of the university, Morris Inn, Notre Dame Athletics, Notre Dame experience
In an effort to increase mental health awareness and foster a sense of unity on campus, Saint Mary’s will host several events this week as part of its Support a Belle, Love a Belle (SABLAB) initiative.Junior Mary Joy Dingler, co-chair of the Student Government Association’s Social Concerns Committee, said she and her co-chair junior Jenna Wozniak collaborated to schedule both new events and continue successful ones.“Jenna and I worked together all summer planning this week,” Dingler said. “The student panel and guest speaker are traditions for SABLAB, so we just had to organize those. Apart from that, Jenna and I just tried to think of events that would bring girls together.”Dingler said she can personally attest to the transformative power of SABLAB, as she took part in years prior.“I remember participating in events my freshman year and loving everything about it,” she said. “It brings girls together in a unique way and under a different type of circumstance.”According to Dingler, students of all ages can benefit from this week as they bond with other Belles and gain understanding of mental health issues.“I think it is something upperclassmen look forward to every year, but I think it is also important for the new students on campus,” Dingler said. “During the first few weeks of school, students are scared, nervous and homesick, and SABLAB brings them together during a tough time.”Wozniak said she also encourages all students to take active roles in SABLAB, because the health and wellness of Saint Mary’s students is a priority that must be regarded with the utmost seriousness — especially by those who do not suffer firsthand.“Students who are not directly influenced by these issues are not always aware of them,” Wozniak said. “SABLAB week shines a light on mental health issues and acknowledges that Saint Mary’s is a safe community that wants to provide an environment for its students to flourish in every way possible.”According to Wozniak, students will gain new knowledge of the counseling services available to them, which will help them support fellow Belles.“It is important that students who are affected by mental health issues know they have resources available to them to help them succeed during their time here,” Wozniak said. “Alone, we are capable of doing great things, but together we are invincible.”Dingler said SABLAB incorporates events for everyone, with activities ranging from a presentation by two women featured in “The Hunting Ground,” a CNN documentary released this past spring that highlights the issues of sexual assault on college campuses.Other events include a visit from the South Bend Humane Society, which will bring four dogs and a rabbit to campus. Dingler said she is especially looking forward to a student panel whose members will openly discuss mental health issues and the importance of a good support system.“We will hear about a variety of different issues from girls with different experiences,” Dingler said. “I think it will be a great opportunity for girls to be educated by students with experiences that they might be able to relate to on some level or another.”Students should feel comfortable and accepted at Saint Mary’s, and SABLAB is the perfect way to ensure that happens, Dingler said.“I hope students walk away from each event knowing in their hearts that no matter who they are, they are the Belles of Saint Mary’s, and by coming to this school they are part of a sisterhood that will never falter,” Dingler said. “I hope they become more knowledgeable about mental health and make connections that will only strengthen the support system here at Saint Mary’s.”Tags: love a belle, mental health awareness, SABLAB, saint mary’s, support a belle
Filmmaker Jayasri Majumdar Hart and professor of religious studies and film consultant Carol Coburn took part in a viewing and discussion of the PBS documentary “Sisters of Selma: Bearing Witness for Change” on Tuesday evening.The event was sponsored by Saint Mary’s Center of Multicultural Services, Campus Ministry and Student Diversity Board (SDB) and was moderated by Deacon Melvin Tardy, Jr., an academic advisor in Notre Dame’s First Year of Studies and assistant professorial specialist. Tardy is also the chair of the Black Catholic Advisory Board for the diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend.The documentary features the testimonies of Catholic sisters who went to Selma in 1965 to peacefully protest for civil rights, alongside thousands of activists and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. According to the documentary, the goal of the protest in Selma was to exercise African-Americans’ legal right to register to vote without encountering harm and intimidation tactics.Hart said she found the story of the Catholic sisters while doing research.“What amazed me was how much news footage was available, and I thought ‘I have to make this film’” she said. “[PBS] makes sure everything you put in your film is authentic. They are very supportive but very demanding, so they require a history consultant.”Coburn said she was honored to work with Hart on the documentary.“I am all about words, and she is all about images,” she said. “Selma has literally brought us together. I had been researching Catholic sisters for over a decade, and the work that Catholic sisters have done historically, and women’s history, is very important to me. Looking at records of social justice among sisters, I saw a box labeled ‘Selma,’ and I asked to see it.”Unlike most women at the time, Catholic sisters in the 1960s were gaining advanced degrees from prestigious universities, Coburn said, and after the Second Vatican Council, sisters began advocating for social justice.“As a woman and as a historian, that was very profound to me,” she said.Hart said her Indian and Hindu background gave her an understanding of the idea of living a life centered around faith.“I heard from the sisters a lot and it began to make sense to me,” she said. “We serve [others] because they are less fortunate than us. For the sisters, social service was something they already had been doing. The social justice part was what I had needed to understand in my life.”Martin Luther King Jr.’s civil rights movement was “religious from the beginning,” Tardy said.“It was a moral issue as opposed to a social issue,” he said. “I don’t think what people knew what it was like to see an African-American sister at the march. Many people were outraged that they were involved with a social issue, rather than moral issue.”Many sisters who came to Selma were from the Midwest, Coburn said, while the bishops on the coasts were more conservative.“These bishops could take away Catholic identity in a diocese. The bishop in St. Joseph ignored the telegraph from bishops on the coasts that said not to send sisters to Selma. It was a very complicated interaction of power, race and religion,” she said.Concluding the panel, Tardy said the fight for justice is an ongoing process.“Sometimes people get the sense that the church is perfect already — that King fixed these race problems already,” he said. “We win some, and we lose some for justice. Just because you see Ferguson happening and events in Baltimore, it doesn’t mean that there hasn’t been gains. … We all have a role to play. There are these stories out there like this story. We have to think about who is missing from the story. We have to dig and find these stories and find who’s missing, and then we can come together in solidarity.”Vice president of the SDB Angela Bukur said the film and panel were designed to connect the topics of religion and race.“It’s such an important topic to talk about because many people don’t know about the social justice of the nuns,” she said.Tags: Selma, SMC, Student Diversity Board