USA: COMSUBGRU 2 Voices Importance of STEM Educational Fields to Students

first_imgThe commander of Submarine Group 2 discussed science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) educational fields with more than 80 students at Bennie Dover Jackson Middle School in New London, Conn., Nov. 15.“A world of opportunities are available to you and a lot of doors open if you pursue studies in STEM-related fields,” said Rear Adm. Rick Breckenridge, who spoke for nearly two hours about his career in the Navy and the importance of math and science, especially in the submarine force.Breckenridge further discussed the importance of math in one’s daily life and by demonstrating “mental gymnastics” with the students asking them to provide answers to his mathematical questions related to target course and bearings.“Mental gym works out our minds like we work out our bodies in gym class,” said Breckenridge.Breckenridge was invited to speak at Bennie Dover Jackson Middle School through a daughter of a naval colleague and mentor he had served with at the beginning of his naval career.“My father, retired Rear Adm. Tony Watson had served with Rear Adm. Breckenridge aboard USS Hammerhead in the late 1980s,” said Erica Watson, an 8th grade science teacher at the middle school. “I’m thrilled to have Rear Adm. Breckenridge speak to the students at Bennie Dover because he is a huge proponent for STEM education for school age kids.”Watson added that a few of her students have expressed interest in joining the Navy, in particular the submarine force.“I have a couple of students who have expressed interest in serving aboard submarines, and a few others who are interested in serving in the other services,” said Watson, who has worked at the middle school since August of this year.Watson and more than 60 students will visit Naval Submarine Library and Museum Nov. 19 as a way to continue their STEM educational focus.Bennie Dover Jackson Middle School was named in honor of the first African American teacher in New London.[mappress]Naval Today Staff, November 19, 2012; Image: US Navy View post tag: Educational View post tag: usa View post tag: COMSUBGRU Training & Education View post tag: 2 Back to overview,Home naval-today USA: COMSUBGRU 2 Voices Importance of STEM Educational Fields to Students November 19, 2012 View post tag: Fields View post tag: Navalcenter_img View post tag: students View post tag: Navy View post tag: News by topic View post tag: STEM View post tag: importance USA: COMSUBGRU 2 Voices Importance of STEM Educational Fields to Students View post tag: Voices Share this articlelast_img read more

University Chancellor criticised for neglecting BBC

first_imgBBC Trust Chairman and Oxford University Chancellor Lord Chris Patten has been accused of being “distracted from serving licence-payers properly” in a letter from the BBC Radio Forum.The letter, sent to culture secretary Sajid Javid, urges that the “grave failings” by the BBC under Patten are not repeated, asking that the appointment of his successor, due to begin work in May 2015, be “as transparent as possible so that the best candidate for the job is picked.”The BBC Radio Forum, a national message board for licence fee payers, represents 4,000 supporters who include BBC radio producers, the TaxPayers’ Alliance and MediaWatch-UK. The letter was written on behalf of “thousands of listeners who have petitioned the BBC about various management failures in recent years.”According to the letter, Patten has “proved himself to be a particularly poor BBC Trust chairman in terms of his main duty, which is representing the interests of licence fee-payers.“He has been a dreadful advertisement for the BBC due to his astonishingly patronising approach to anyone who has ever questioned him on any matter relating to the BBC.”Patten’s tenure as BBC Trust Chair has been frequently characterised, to borrow the words of Peter Oborne, by a “lack of grip” and an “evasion of responsibility”.In particular, the letter referred to his role in the controversy surrounding the Pollard Report which looked into the Jimmy Savile affair in 2012. Patten refused to allow the report to be changed, even though Nick Pollard, who chaired the £3m inquiry, admitted its exclusion was “a mistake”.However, in the letter, BBC Radio Forum spokesperson Tamsin Vincent suggested that the failures of his tenure were down to “outside interests” which have “distracted Lord Patten from serving licence payers properly.” Alongside his unpaid position as Chancellor of Oxford University, a role he has held since 2003, Patten also has five other paid jobs.The Forum’s letter asked that the government do “all that [they] can to insist that Lord Patten’s successor is required to do the job on a full-time basis. Lord Patten claims to devote ‘3 to 4 days per week’ to the BBC, for which he is paid £110,000.”However, Oxford students have been quick to defend the time commitments of their Chancellor. Recognising Patten as a “very eminent figure in British public life who masterminded John Major’s 1992 election campaign”, first year Jesus historian Joel Nelson told Cherwell: “I find it unsurprising that a man as distinguished as Chris Patten should be extremely busy.“Harold Macmillan was Oxford chancellor, and he must have had the same, if not more on his plate than Patten.” Exeter’s Phil Bell also claims to having “spoken to him once at a barbecue” and says “he was very friendly”, evidence that the Chancellor still makes time for social occasions. Both Patten and the BBC Trust refused to comment on the letter.last_img read more

Readers Forum December 26, 2016

first_imgWHAT IS ON YOUR MIND TODAYWe urge you to take time and click the section we have reserved for the daily recaps of the activities of our local Law Enforcement professionals. This section is located on the upper right side of our publication.If you would like to advertise or submit and article in the CCO please contact us City-County [email protected] County Observer has been serving our community for 16 years.Copyright 2015 City County Observer. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more


first_imgFacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailShare City-County Observer “Outstanding Community Services Award” Winner For 2018.Our third “Outstanding Community Services Award” winner for 2018 is the extremely popular and the very personable Evansville attorney, Patrick A. Shoulders.Mr. Shoulders played a major role in bringing the I U Medical School to Downtown Evansville.  While some of our local political types were attempting to take credit for bringing the I U Medical School to Evansville Mr. Shoulders was quietly lobbying powerful state political and educational leaders in order to convince them to approve the I U Medical School for Evansville. In the end, Mr. Shoulders political connections and due diligence prevailed.Mr. Shoulders is a partner in the firm who concentrates his practice in Litigation. He received his undergraduate degree in English from Indiana University in 1975, and his law degree from Indiana University in 1978, graduating magna cum laude. Admitted in both Indiana and Kentucky, Pat is an accomplished trial lawyer with sub-specialties in school law and appellate practice.Pat has been elected to membership in the American College of Trial Lawyers. He has also been elected to the Federation of Insurance & Defense Counsel, Litigation Counsel of America, and is a member of the American Board of Trial Advocates. Pat is a co-chair and founder of the Trial Advocacy Skills College held annually by the Indiana Continuing Legal Education Forum. He is a past chair of the Indiana Bar Association’s Litigation Section and a past council member of the State Bar’s Appellate Advocacy Committee. Pat has been recognized in every edition of Indiana Super Lawyers and has been one of the top 50 lawyers in the state of Indiana. He has achieved an AV certification rating from the Martindale & Hubbell legal directory, an elite peer rating recognizing him as performing at the highest level of professional excellence based on ethical standards and legal ability. He is also a frequent presenter for the Indiana Continuing Legal Education Forum and he has represented the Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corporation as its General Counsel for more than 25 years.Mr. Shoulders has served the legal profession as President of the Evansville Bar Association, as Chair of the Litigation and Citizenship Education Committees of the Indiana State Bar Association, as Chair of the Fellows of the Indiana Bar Foundation, and as a member of the State Bar Associations Board of Governors from 1998-2000. He is the recipient of the Evansville Bar Association’s highest honor—the James Bethel Gresham Award, in recognition of his service to the legal profession, and is a distinguished barrister in The Indiana Lawyer publications.Pat’s volunteer activities in Southwestern Indiana have been numerous. He served as President of the Evansville Parks Foundation, Museum of Arts & Sciences, and the YMCA, Chair of the WNIN Auction, Founder & Director of the Arts Fest 12K River Run, a Member of the Board of Park Commissioners and a member of the Evansville Convention and Visitor’s Bureau. He has served as a Civic Theatre Board Member, Public Defender Commissioner, and Member of the Mayor’s Unification Study Committee. His volunteerism has earned him the Kentucky Colonel, Sagamore of the Wabash and the Indiana Bar’s President’s Awards.Pat has also served Indiana University with distinction. Pat has been a Trustee of IU since January 1, 2002. He is a past national President of the Indiana University Alumni Association and the IU College of Arts & Sciences Alumni Association. He also currently serves as a Director of the IU Foundation and is a past member of the Board of Governors of the IU Center on Philanthropy and the Indiana Public Policy Institute.Mr. Shoulders co-hosted an extremely popular weekly television show on PBS affiliate WNIN entitled “Shively & Shoulders” with fellow attorney and personal friend, Chief Superior Court Judge, Les Shilvey. On this show, they interviewed local and state public officials engaged in vigorous discussions on current issues and events.He and his Wife, Lisa; a daughter and son-in-law in Newburgh, Indiana, and a son and his partner in New York City, and three granddaughters.FOOTNOTE: This year’s awards luncheon will be held at Tropicana-Evansville Walnut rooms A and B on March 19, 2018. The registration begins at 11:30 am, the event officially starts at 12 noon on March 19, 2018. Reservations for this event may be obtained by calling 812-774-8011.  We have only one (1) tables left to sell.  Deadline for registration is March 17, 2018. Last year’s event was a sellout.last_img read more

Local Developer: O.C.’s $9 Million Property Deal Would Benefit Public “For Decades”

first_imgDeveloper Sean Scarborough, pictured here with one of his company’s projects, believes Ocean City’s land purchase would complement other public property and facilities nearby. (Courtesy Scarborough Properties) By Donald WittkowskiOcean City’s proposed $9 million purchase of nearly a block of property “makes perfect sense” and must be completed before the opportunity is lost for the public’s benefit, according to a prominent local developer.The strategically located land would connect Emil Palmer Park, the Ocean City Community Center and other facilities already owned by the city in a public corridor stretching from 15th to 20th streets, Sean Scarborough said.“This affords synergistic planning opportunities for decades to come. The assembled property is worth more than the sum of its parts,” said Scarborough, an Ocean City resident and owner of Scarborough Properties, a commercial and residential development company.The city wants to buy the land – a former Chevrolet auto dealership bordered by Simpson and Haven avenues between 16th and 17th streets – and preserve it as open space or possibly use it as the site for a new public safety building for the police department and municipal court.Scarborough believes that such a large piece of property is actually a “cheap” buy at $9 million, considering its potential as a development site for new housing. The city hopes to acquire it to prevent the construction of a high-density type of housing known as “coastal cottages.”A now-closed auto dealership at 16th Street and Simpson Avenue is the centerpiece of a nearly block of land the city is looking to buy for public use.In a statement to, Scarborough praised the city for “respecting the law and not pursuing a fool’s errand” by zoning down the property to reduce its overall value. He said zoning restrictions would simply result in litigation that the city would ultimately lose.“I say we are fortunate because too often local thuggery will take over and we go down the litigation path after action is taken to down-zone a property in order to reduce or eliminate the property having any value,” he said. “That won’t happen here, and shouldn’t happen here. The value is real and it is more valuable to us as a city, given we own the surrounding real estate, than it is to anyone else.”The proposed land deal has hit a potential snag amid efforts by the local government watchdog group Fairness In Taxes for a public referendum giving voters a final say on the transaction. FIT has started a petition drive and needs 400 valid signatures by Oct. 10 to have a referendum placed on the ballot.In recent appearances before City Council, FIT members have contended the city is overpaying for the land and has relied on what they argue are two flawed property appraisals. The city had two independent appraisals conducted, with one setting the value at $8.3 million and the other at $9 million.“We believe it should be purchased, but the city is paying $2.5 million to $3 million too much for the property,” FIT said on its website in an update on its petition drive.Mayor Jay Gillian, who is pushing for the land deal with City Council’s support, maintains that the two appraisals accurately reflect the property’s value. Gillian said the property owners, Jerry and Harry Klause, want to sell the land to the city to have it preserved for public use, but are sticking to their asking price of $9 million.In remarks to City Council last week, Jerry Klause said his family is willing to consider offers from housing developers for the land if the deal with the city falls through. The mayor said the Klauses have court approval to build 29 densely packed coastal cottages on the site, a type of housing development he wants to prevent by having the city buy the property.Empty land behind the former auto dealership property at 16th Street and Simpson Avenue is also being eyed by the city.Scarborough, meanwhile, said in an interview Wednesday that the land would serve as a “keystone” by helping to link up other surrounding property and facilities already controlled by the city.“It makes perfect sense,” he said.He argued that the city’s opportunity to acquire the property “cannot be missed.”“Mayor Gillian, Council and the administration should be commended and deserve our support for having the courage to undertake a deliberative and thorough process to make a significant and long-term investment in our community that will improve the quality of life in Ocean City for all. Do it,” Scarborough said.Throughout its attempt to buy the land, the city has “observed the rules of the road” and avoided the pitfalls of overpaying, he believes.last_img read more

News story: Local COVID alert level update for Greater Manchester

first_imgMeasures will only be in place as long as necessary, with case rates and epidemiology reviewed regularly. The restrictions in Greater Manchester will be reviewed by at least 11 November.All available data for the areas that will move to local COVID alert level very high on Saturday have been assessed by the government, including the Health and Social Care Secretary, NHS Test and Trace, the Joint Biosecurity Centre (JBC), Public Health England (PHE), the Chief Medical Officer and the Cabinet Office. Data assessed includes incidence, test positivity and the growth rate of the virus.The government’s strategy is to suppress the virus while supporting the economy, education and the NHS, until an effective vaccine is widely available. Local action is at the centre of our response, and engagement with local authorities will continue to be a key part of this process. Until Thursday 5 November, the relevant local COVID alert level measures will continue to apply in the area where you live.From Thursday the national restrictions replace the local restrictions in your area. The rate of COVID-19 infections is rising rapidly across the UK. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) estimates that one in every 240 people in England had the virus in the week from 25 September to 1 October and that the numbers infected are doubling every 7 to 12 days. Cases are not evenly spread, with infection rates rising more rapidly in some areas than others.In Greater Manchester, infection rates are among the highest in the country. As of 12 October, the weekly average for new cases was 1,591, an increase of 302% in one month since 12 September.There are now more COVID-19 patients in Greater Manchester hospitals than in the whole of the South West and South East combined, and on the current trajectory the number of COVID patients in Greater Manchester will exceed the numbers from the first peak in April in 2 to 3 weeks.To support the local authority during this period, the government will be providing a £22 million funding package to protect public health and local economies, including compliance, enforcement and contact tracing activity across Greater Manchester. The government will also continue to discuss further business support funding with local leaders in line with what was agreed for Lancashire and Merseyside.The funding is in addition to Jobs Support Scheme set out by the Chancellor earlier this month, which will pay up to two-thirds of employees’ wages for businesses required to close and provide grants worth up to £3,000 per month. Employees will have access to Universal Credit on top of this.The government has already provided £1 billion of additional funding for all local authorities to support their COVID responses, on top of the £3.7 billion provided since March.local COVID alert level very high will take effect across all parts of Greater Manchester: Following discussions between local leaders and the government which today concluded without an agreement, Greater Manchester will move from local COVID alert level high to very high from 00.01 on Friday 23 October.This means that new measures will come into place including:center_img Bolton Bury Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Trafford Wigan people must not socialise with anybody they do not live with, or have formed a support bubble with, in any indoor setting or in any private garden or at most outdoor hospitality venues and ticketed events people must not socialise in a group of more than 6 in an outdoor public space such as a park or beach, the countryside, a public garden or a sports venue all pubs and bars must close, unless they are serving substantial meals betting shops, casinos, bingo halls, adult gaming centres and soft play areas will close people should try to avoid travelling outside the very high alert level or entering a very-high alert level area, other than for work, education or for caring responsibilities or to travel through as part of a longer journey residents should avoid staying overnight in another part of the UK, and others should avoid staying overnight in the very high alert arealast_img read more

PHOTOS: Pigeons Playing Ping Pong Pack Port City Music Hall For Fantastic First Night

first_imgOn Saturday night, Pigeons Playing Ping Pong played the first show of their sold-out two-night stand at Port City Music Hall this weekend. By the time Vermont jam band Swimmer opened the show, the room was already filling up. By the time Pigeons came on it was as crowded as the Portland, Maine venue could possibly manage, the audience fully invested and singing along all night.The band responded in kind with a fantastic show including highlights like an inverted “Psycho Killer” (Talking Heads) segment sandwiched inside a “J-Town” jam and a cover of The Lion King‘s “I Just Can’t Wait To Be King” that recalled their Disney-themed 2017 New Year’s Eve performance, cleverly dubbed “DisNYE.” The entertaining covers came among fantastic renditions of Pigeons Playing Ping Pong favorites old and new like “Porcupine”, “Walk Outside”, “Henrietta”, “Su Casa”, “Whirled”, “Julia”, “Whoopie”, “Avalanche”, “Landing”, “CWA”, and “Bad For You”. The band finally finished out strong with a marvelous “Horizon” and a set-closing “Ocean Flows” before putting a bow on the performance with a “Dawn A New Day” encore.Below, you can check out a full gallery of photos from Pigeons Playing Ping Pong’s first of two Portland performances below courtesy of photographer Victor Brazen.For a full list of Pigeons Playing Ping Pong’s upcoming tour dates, head to the band’s website.Setlist: Pigeon Playing Ping Pong | Port City Music Hall | Portland, ME | 4/14/18Set 1:PorcupineWalk OutsideJ-Town > Psycho Killer* > J-Town >>Henrietta >>Su Casa >>WhirledJuliaSet 2WhoopieAvalancheLanding > Drums >Just Can’t Wait To Be KingCWA >>Bad For YouHorizonOcean FlowsE. Dawn A New DayNotes:* InvertedSold Out showPigeon Playing Ping Pong | Port City Music Hall | Portlant, ME | 4/14/18 | Photos: Victor Brazen Load remaining imageslast_img read more

It starts with education

first_imgTeaching “isn’t rocket science,” said David J. Johns. “It’s harder.”Addressing an Askwith Forum on “Closing the Gap: African-American Educational Excellence,” Johns, executive director of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans, challenged his audience to tackle that difficult work. He called for honesty and rigor from educators, the community, and institutions like the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE).Speaking in HGSE’s Askwith Hall on Tuesday night, Johns opened with a moment of silence for the slain Michael Brown of Ferguson, Mo., as well as other young African-American and Latino victims of violence, then dove right into the problems faced by many members of the African-American community.“It should not be the case that in America a child’s opportunity is determined by ZIP code or genetic code,” he said, quoting a line from the initiative that both President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama have used. The program Johns leads is the newest of six such educational initiatives, he explained, describing it as “unapologetic and as intentional as we can possibly be” about leveling the playing field.How to achieve that was the subject of his engaging 50-minute talk, which was followed by a question-and-answer period. To begin, he said, educators need to have an accurate perception of the issues faced by students of color.“Children, especially disadvantaged children of color, are especially resilient — but they shouldn’t have to be,” he said. Discussing the hurdles faced by many students, he described poverty, hunger, and homelessness. “Children experience events that would break the average adult,” he said, asking his audience to imagine coming into school after missing a night’s sleep or even after witnessing a murder.Babies, Nerds, and Tweets | Harvard Graduate School of EducationDavid Johns, executive director of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans, shares solutions and strategies for closing the achievement gap in communities across the country.On Wednesday morning, about 200 Harvard students and others convened in front of University Hall in protest of the Missouri legal decision not to indict the former police officer who shot Brown dead.In his remarks, Johns also warned his listeners about the dangers of accepting and perpetuating negative images. Illustrating his point with slides and video of often very young African-American scholars and entrepreneurs — such as Thessalonika Arzu-Embry, who received her bachelor’s degree from Chicago State University at 14, and Moziah Bridges, who founded Mo’s Bows, a handcrafted bow tie business, at age 9 — Johns said, “There are still students who show up, face those barriers, and stand out anyway.”To begin to engage the problems and the stereotypes, Johns called for open discourse. Often, he said, that means “speaking truth to power,” calling out racism in all its forms and demanding opportunities and resources. “This is difficult work,” he acknowledged. “People don’t like to talk about race. They don’t like to talk about class. They don’t like to talk about the convergence of the two.”It also means being candid with young people and, perhaps most important, listening to them. Following a video of 11-year-old Marquis Govan testifying before the St. Louis County Council about the dearth of people of color on the police force and in other neighborhood roles, Johns noted that children are “asking us to care,” to demonstrate “that we see them, that we’re going to be honest about the mistakes that we’ve made, and that we’re going to support them.”Focusing on the role of educators, Johns emphasized three key points. Learning, he said, starts at birth, and families must be engaged in prenatal and early childhood care. “Why are we spending all this time trying to play catch-up?” Literacy, he continued, is vital, and must be supported and encouraged within families and communities. “If I can read, then everybody I know should be able to read.”He added that post-secondary success must be celebrated and supported “from birth.” Simply getting into a college is not enough, he stressed, and educational institutions must try harder to support students all the way to degree or certificate.The challenges, Johns acknowledged, are vast and need to be faced on a societal level. “Imagine,” he asked his audience, “how different our country would be if we celebrated half as much the people who choose educational achievement as those who dribble balls or sing songs.”Repeatedly, Johns returned to the role to be played by his audience — largely graduate students in education and teachers — with encouragement for their daunting task. “You all are the chosen ones,” he concluded. “Take care of yourself as you continue to do this work, because it’s not going to happen overnight. It’s valuable, and it’s essential.”last_img read more

Daily life and death on the U.S.-Mexico border

first_imgIeva Jusionyte has always been drawn to border tensions. As a graduate student, she went right to the heart of the drug and human smuggling nexus of Puerto Iguazú, a town at the tri-border area of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, to research how the media reported on crime. While there, she developed a deep interest in the experiences of firefighters and rescue workers, and later, in the U.S., trained to become a certified emergency medical technician (EMT), paramedic, and wildland firefighter.Most recently, Jusionyte embedded herself at the U.S.-Mexico border for a year, using her technical skills to help first responders on both sides of the divide. She reasoned that firefighters and EMTs would face many of the human consequences of national security policy on a daily basis.In Nogales, Ariz., she volunteered as an EMT with the suburban fire department, responding to 911 calls — whether for a wildfire or for a critically ill or wounded person. Across the border in Nogales, Mexico, she delivered first aid to injured migrants and deportees on a bench in a soup kitchen, which also served as a humanitarian and legal center.The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (WCIF) spoke with Jusionyte, an assistant professor of anthropology and of social studies at Harvard, about her work and forthcoming book, “Threshold: Emergency and Rescue on the U.S.-Mexico Border,” which brings together the experiences of the first responders and residents of the local border communities, to take stock of the real-life impact of U.S. national security measures.Ieva Jusionyte with two Mexican firefighters during the Day of the Virgin of Guadalupe celebrations in Nogales, Mexico, on Dec. 12, 2015.Q&AIeva JusionyteWCIF: Do Mexican and U.S. emergency responders on both sides of the border work together?IEVA JUSIONYTE: At the border, everyday life unfolds on a binational scale. Mexican and American first responders go back and forth regularly and rely on each other to do their jobs. When it comes to saving lives, it is as if the border did not exist for them. Sometimes emergency workers on both sides were family members. For them it is one community split in half by the border wall, which is an inconvenience but does not cut the strong ties that hold the community together. As you go further north, the sentiment toward Mexico is more negative. The fire departments, which are predominantly white, don’t work with Mexican first responders.WCIF: What kinds of emergencies require joint efforts?JUSIONYTE: Some migrants decide against climbing over the wall and try to cross under it instead, through the drainage tunnels that go under the U.S.-Mexico border. Mexico is uphill, upwind, and upstream from Arizona. Because of how Nogales was haphazardly built, when it starts to rain in Mexico, some streets turn into rivers, and the water overflows the drainage tunnel. There are a lot of situations when people get carried away in these washes, or arroyos, that flood the tunnels. The powerful current sweeps them away from Mexico and carries them to the United States. So emergency responders do binational rescue operations to find people; they begin searching on the Mexican side and continue into the U.S. Sometimes they save a life, but more often they only recover a body further downstream.In addition to rescues from the wash, emergency responders go out in the desert to find people who are lost and who don’t even know which side of the border they are on when they call 911.WCIF: After working for a year in this region, you conclude in your forthcoming book that the border wall is being used as a weapon. Can you explain this?JUSIONYTE: The focus of my work is actually how the terrain is being weaponized to enforce U.S. immigration policiesIn 1994, the U.S. Border Patrol created a strategic plan based on the concept of “prevention through deterrence.” The idea was to make the transit corridors in major urban areas, like Nogales, Tijuana-San Diego, or Ciudad Juárez-El Paso, extremely difficult to cross. They militarized the towns by increasing the length and the height of the fence, building surveillance and lighting systems, and really concentrating all the border enforcement there so that the only option would be for migrants to go through remote desert terrain in Arizona or California, or cross the Rio Grande in Texas, which is very dangerous. It’s written in the plan that violence and injuries would increase, and that would deter people from coming.,WCIF: So the desert became part of the deterrence strategy as well?JUSIONYTE: The farther away you go from the urban areas, there is nothing but desert with mountains and steep ravines. The international boundary there is marked by a four-strand barbed-wire fence and Normandy barriers, which are crisscrossed beams that stop vehicles, yet people can cross there very easily. But it is so far away from settled areas that the natural environment will kill you if you are unprepared. It’s impossible to carry enough water for that kind of journey. Unable to call for help, migrants are also often assaulted; women are frequently raped. Many people do make it across, however, and that’s why they keep coming.WCIF: What are the most common types of injuries you saw?I’ve met migrants in the desert who got lost and were trying to find the Border Patrol because they wanted to live. When the smugglers take them across they are told it’s a few hours to Phoenix, when it actually takes three to five days just to reach Tucson. They don’t have maps and there’s no cellphone signal. The people whom I’ve met were very, very dehydrated. Such dehydration can lead to heat stroke, or hyperthermia. More often it results in kidney failure. People who walk in the desert usually have blisters that make it difficult to carry on with the journey. In winter, with temperatures at night falling to below freezing, dehydration makes migrants susceptible to hypothermia. There are snake bites, too, but those are rare. In the desert, most people die due to exposure to extreme heat. But sometimes it is hard to tell; by the time they are finally found, they are reduced to skeletal remains.WCIF: How do people breach the wall in the urban areas?JUSIONYTE: Most people pay for a trip “up the ladder” on the Mexican side. Then they need to slide down on the other side and it’s quite high, 20-plus feet.YouTube is full of videos of drug smugglers with backpacks who slide down very efficiently. But some people climb up and then see that it’s too far to the ground and become afraid to slide. There have been cases where — because the migrants have already paid for the service, or it will be paid by the family members only if the person ends up on the U.S. side of the border — they are forcibly pushed down. If they were pushed, they usually have leg or ankle fractures, and because of the height of the fall, injuries to the spine are also likely. I interviewed a trauma surgeon who has treated many injured migrants. There were some who landed on their heads and died instantly.,WCIF: How has the back-and-forth movement of Mexican migrants changed in the past two decades?JUSIONYTE: It became more difficult to cross in the mid-1990s, and even more so after 9/11. In 2006, the Secure Fence Act mandated the building of essentially what we have now, 700 miles of border fence, which includes both pedestrian and vehicle barriers.Prior to this time, many migrants would come to the U.S. to work temporarily just for one agricultural season or perhaps a couple of years in the construction or service industry and then take their earnings back to their hometowns. When they needed more money, perhaps to pay medical bills or to send a child to school, they would return, knowing that U.S. employers were eagerly waiting for cheap migrant labor. It was cyclical migration. But many of those people are now stuck here, on the U.S. side, and not going back because they fear that with security buildup they would never be able to return to the U.S. for another labor season. They stay here, send money back, and, when they can, save enough to pay a “coyote” to bring their spouse or their children to live with them here. I’ve seen many women crossing the border, sometimes with small children, when it used to be primarily young men coming for work.WCIF: Besides work, what are the other reasons for wanting to cross into the U.S.?JUSIONYTE: In the last few years, we’ve seen many people from Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras fleeing violence and crime. Some of them are asking for asylum, which means that instead of crossing the border illegally, they present themselves to the Border Patrol and wait for their cases to be heard at the court.WCIF: Has the border strategy been successful, in terms of in deterring Mexican migrants?JUSIONYTE: Recent data show that there are now more Mexicans leaving the U.S. than coming here. But I’ve always been skeptical about statistics since they are notoriously ineffective at estimating activities, such as unauthorized migration, which depend on avoiding being seen and known by the state.WCIF: Would you advocate taking the border away? What would happen?JUSIONYTE: You don’t need a wall or a fence on the border. People have no urge to leave their homeland, to risk their lives in order to live on the margins of society in a foreign country. If given a choice many would prefer to stay in their community. If they could get a temporary work permit, it would enable them to go for a short time and then return home, as long as movement is possible, much like between the countries in the European Union and the U.S. and Canada.This has been edited for length. To read the full story, visit the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs website.last_img read more

Memory Centric Architecture Vision

first_imgTo address these new optimized acceleration devices we need to bring them into  the memory/cache domain of the CPU If you’re in enterprise tech, then you know that the pace of digital transformation is driving technologies, architectures, and solutions to new heights. There is enough new “stuff” going on to make your head spin.  All these changes are driving the industry toward revolutionary architectures as the evolutionary past is simply not keeping up. In this blog, I hope to explain the challenges that are driving the industry toward a Memory Centric Architecture (MCA). Market DynamicsThe industry’s current evolutionary journey is not providing the necessary technology to tackle big challenges ahead – we are swimming in data, billions of IoT devices are coming on line, with machine learning and cognitive computing finding their ways into business results.At the same time businesses are learning that data has an intrinsic time-based value – meaning that the value of the insights gained from the data quickly declines. Take your time on a web retailer: taking too long to piece together who you are, what you like, where you live, who your friends are, what you bought last time, and what your friends bought can result in a missed opportunity for a directed product marketing advertisement leading to a purchase versus an empty shopping cart and ultimately you moving on to a new website.At the technology level, the systems we are building through continued evolution are not advancing fast enough to keep up with these new workloads and use cases. The reality is that the machines we have today were architected five years ago, and ML/DL/AI uses in business are just coming to light, so the industry missed a need. Most of the problems above need a balance between data access and computational horsepower. But the data access is unstructured and data is movement intensive versus computational intensive – simple operators versus complex operators – one taxes memory and the other the CPU.Below is a historical view of standard 2-socket servers the industry has been building since 2003 (per core view):While there won’t be a test at the end, the key points you should take away are:Core counts continue to rise (that’s good – Moore’s Law is ok)Memory Capacity per Core is flat (Moore’s Law for DRAM is kind of keeping up)IO bandwidth per core has been on a downward trend over the last five years (and PCIe Gen4 is a ways out)Memory bandwidth per core has been shrinking for the last seven years (nothing new over the horizon at present – just more channels and pins)Memory latency per core has been rising over the last eight years (not good considering time value of data)The other challenge facing the industry is performance gains delivered by Moore’s Law. Remember, Moore’s Law is about transistor per unit area doubling rate, not performance. It just so happens in years past the two were on the same path. With the advent of multicore the rate of performance gains has dropped from 52%/year to 22%/year according to “Computer Architecture, A Quantitative Approach by Hennessy and Patterson” –the de facto standard for Computer Engineering textbooks.  But still, 22% is quite good – we keep getting more cores and the cores themselves keep getting slightly better. However, the systems they are attached to (memory & IO) are not keeping up.Hence you see the industry trying to adopt all kinds of acceleration technology optimized for these new workloads, and to compensate for reduced performance CAGR. System designers are now challenged on how to add GPUs, FPGA, Smart NIC, Smart Memory, machine learning ASICs and so forth into systems that were not optimized for them.So we have a system out of balance on the memory front, and the computational performance CAGR rate has fallen off at the same time all these new use cases for big data, machine learning, cognitive computing, IoT, and advanced analytics are on the rise. Add composability, rack scale architectures, and storage class memories and we have a system that can’t keep up through evolutionary change. Revolutionary steps need to be taken.To add fuel to the fire we have the notion of composable infrastructure and the value it can bring to IT via more dynamic and agile infrastructure to line up with these changing workloads. For many vendors, marketing hype is way ahead of the reality of the hardware architecture required to pull off real composability. I have written a couple of blogs that argue we have some real challenges ahead to create new hardware and software to pull off full composability:A Practical View of Composable InfrastructureReality Check: Is Composable Infrastructure Ready for Prime Time?Gen-Z – An Open Fabric Technology Standard on the Journey to ComposabilityIt’s pretty clear we have 2 major problems to solve in today’s architecture: Memory Tier To address memory performance challenges we need to create tiers of different classes of memoryMemory semantics need to be extended to rack level to make systems truly composablecenter_img Performance The storage industry has done a wonderful job of providing storage tiers. One could argue maybe too good of job. Below is a view of Past, Present, and possible Future storage tiers. Good news is the future outlook is on track to simplify this a bit.On the memory front, the picture is much bleaker…it’s DRAM or NOT DRAM. It’s easy this way, but doesn’t scale well. The problem as outlined above shows that the DRAM-only approach can’t keep up with emerging use cases. And if you think about it deeper, we can control thread priorities at an application/operating system level but not down to the DRAM access level. That means when your highest priority thread runs on Core1 and some background thread runs on Core18 they actually get the same priority access to the most congested part of the system – DRAM.What we need in the future looks like the pyramid below. Start with highest performance On Package Memory (small, high bandwidth, low latency, expensive) and build up to greater capacity, slower, and lower cost memories. But it has to be done in the native language of the CPU – namely load/stores. CPUs only know how to do load/stores, they don’t know anything about TCP/IP, SCSI, iSCSI and so forth.Industry Teams UpThat is the backdrop that has led 50+ tech titans to recognize the architecture issues we face today and join forces on Gen-Z, CCIX, and OpenCAPI. It’s pretty interesting to see Dell EMC, IBM, HPE, Huawei, Lenovo and others all in the mix together, not to mention CPU/GPU vendors AMD, IBM, ARM, Qualcomm, Cavium, Nvidia, and so on.Another interesting observation about Gen-Z, CCIX, and OpenCAPI is that they are all truly open standards – anyone can join, contribute, influence, and adopt. There is a lot of IP these companies have thrown into the mix to advance the industry rather than keeping them locked away in proprietary systems.So, how do they all relate?CCIX and OpenCAPI will help the performance of these new specialized accelerators to bring them closer to the CPU/Memory domain. They will allow acceleration devices (GPUs/SmartNICs/FPGA) to access and process data irrespective of where it resides, without the need for complex programming environments. This ability to access data coherently dramatically improves performance and usability. They both also push the bounds of IO technology from today’s PCIe Gen3 8Gbpps to 25Gbpps and prepare the industry for higher speeds to come. They will also enable new innovations by enabling more flexibility for attachment of Storage Class memories and bridging to new busses like Gen-Z due to being memory semantic based.Gen-Z is an open systems interconnect designed to provide memory semantic access to data and devices via direct-attached, switched, or fabric topologies. Not only is Dell a member but also president of the Gen-Z consortium. Gen-Z provides memory media independence for emerging storage class memories and opens the door compute in-memory concepts. Gen-Z also pushes the bounds of IO technology to 25Gbpps and scales beyond the node to enable true rack scale composability.Putting it all togetherThe future is bright. The industry is on a journey of open – Open Compute, OpenStack, Open vSwitch, Open Networking. Open source will be adopted more than ever for machine learning, deep learning, cognitive computing, IoT, and so forth. CCIX and OpenCAPI aim to create an open IO ecosystem for advanced acceleration devices. By combining CCIX/OpenCAPI with Gen-Z we’ll be able to create memory tiers and finally tackle composability at rack scale. The industry is working together to accelerate innovation for solving real world problems today, and in an open way that paves the way for the problems we cannot see yet. In my almost 30 years in the industry, this collaboration between peers is the greatest I have ever seen. It’s quite encouraging and exciting to see revolutionary architectures emerge to solve real world problems.In my next couple of blogs I’ll continue to detail how this will play out and how Dell EMC will lead this transition.last_img read more